# Profitability Index PI: Definition, Components, and Formula After 5 years, the new unit will be completely depreciated and expected to be sold for \$70,000. The first thing you notice is that Project I has a larger scale compared to Project II — it requires larger initial investment and returns higher cash flows. The first project will return cash flows for a period of 10 years, while the second one is expected to deliver for 8 years only. More specifically, the PI ratio compares the present value (PV) of future cash flows received from a project to the initial cash outflow (investment) to fund the project. If the IRR is lower than the cost of capital, the project should be killed. Profitability index is calculated as present value of the future cash flows of the investment divided by its… The individual NPVs of project 2 and project 3 are smaller than project 1. However, if they are added together, the sum total is larger than project 1’s NPV. The common sense here dictates that the company should choose both project 2 and 3, and leave the first one.

## One more step…

A project is acceptable if its PI is greater than one and its IRR is greater than the hurdle rate. A project is unacceptable if its PI is less than one and its IRR is less than the hurdle rate. A project is indifferent if its PI is equal to one and its IRR is equal to the hurdle rate.

For example, a project that costs \$1 million and has a present value of future cash flows of \$1.2 million has a PI of 1.2. Given the following cash flows for a capital project, compute the NPV and IRR of the project. The profitability index https://turbo-tax.org/what-is-form-8885/ method measures the acceptability of a project through the ratio of the projected cash inflow to the initial investment. Learn about the definition and calculation of profitability index and understand how to interpret its results.

When an investment has a positive net present value, it indicates a solid investment that should most likely be accepted. When weighing several positive NPV options, those with lower discount values (less risk) should be accepted. The investment profitability index rule of thumb is that when the value of the PI is bigger than 1.0, the investment would be more attractive.

### What are the methods used for accepting or rejecting a project?

The acceptance and rejection rule: 1. NPV: If the NPV is positive then the project must be accepted. On the other hand if the value of NPV is coming negative then project must be rejected.

In such a case, the PI ranking can conflict with the NPV ranking, so many academic studies recommend using the net present value as a single screening criterion. In case of mutually exclusive projects, Company C should accept Project Y and reject Project Z. NPV, on the other hand, suggests exactly how profitable an investment will be in comparison to alternatives and provides an actual cash flow estimation in dollars. Additionally, a NNN property investment may hold a corresponding profitability index with separate investments and a different dollar return, which contributes to a dominant NPV. Here, “r” indicates the discount rate, while “t” is the time of the cash flow.

## Interpreting the Profitability Index

When using the NPV method of measurement, it is essential to choose a proper discount rate, which may be derived from the cost of the capital required to invest. It can also indicate the interest rate the Federal Reserve charges banks for short-term loans or the rate used to discount future cash flows in a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis. The profitability index is calculated by dividing the present value of future cash flows that will be generated by the project by the initial cost of the project. The capital budgeting is the analysis of the company’s future investments, which would evaluate the project if it is acceptable or not. Some of the methods used are net present value, profitability index, discounted payback, and payback period.

### How is the accept reject decision taken in the PI method?

When a project has a positive net present value, it should be accepted. If negative, it should be rejected.

However, if you have a limited budget or a capacity constraint, you may have to choose among mutually exclusive projects, which means that you can only accept one of them. In such cases, you should use the incremental PI and the incremental IRR, which measure the additional value and return of one project over another. You can calculate them by subtracting the PI and the IRR of the lower-ranked project from the PI and the IRR of the higher-ranked project. Then, you should accept the higher-ranked project if its incremental PI is greater than one and its incremental IRR is greater than the hurdle rate.

## Understanding the Profitability Index Rule

Cash flows received further in the future are therefore considered to have a lower present value than money received closer to the present. After the first year, 1,500 of the initial investment of 5,000 is recovered. In year 2, the project earns 3,500, which means that the initial investment is now fully recovered. The payback period ignores the cash flows which occur in years 3 and 4.

### Capital Budgeting: What It Is and How It Works – Investopedia

Capital Budgeting: What It Is and How It Works.

Posted: Sat, 25 Mar 2017 23:32:14 GMT [source]

Internal rate of return (IRR) is also used to determine if a new project or initiative should be undertaken. Broken down further, the net present value discounts after-tax cash flows of a potential project by the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Assuming conventional cash flows, a payback periodless than the project’s life means that the NPV is positive for a zero discountrate, but nothing more definitive can be said.

The NPV requires a bit more understanding of discount rates and cash-flows to perform the calculation, but it may provide better insight by giving the total expected return in dollars. Simply enter your initial investment and discount rate, then use the profitability index formula to fill in the rest of the template. You can use a profitability index template or table like the one below to plug in your values.

By factoring in a discount rate, the discounted payback period is a slight improvement over the payback period. It, however, ignores cash flows that occur after the discounted payback period is attained. The internal rate of return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the net present value (NPV) of all cash flows from a particular project equal to zero.

### What is the NPV acceptance rule?

What is the Net Present Value Rule? The net present value rule is the idea that company managers and investors should only invest in projects or engage in transactions that have a positive net present value (NPV). They should avoid investing in projects that have a negative net present value.